الأثر العقدي والسياسي في انقراض المذهب الفقهي بالغرب الإسلامي والأندلس THE THEOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL EFFECTS OF EXTINCTION OF FIQH MAZHAB (JURISTIC DOCTRINE) IN THE ISLAMIC WEST AND AL-ANDALUS

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Abderrahman Youssouf Ethmane

Abstract

The Islamic West and Al-Andalus remained affected by the Islamic East until both the West and the East are politically separated. Then the Islamic West and Al-Andalus became a new state and adopted Fiqh mazhab and a political approach differs from the East. The Umayyad State in Al-Andalus tried to transfer the Imam Awza'i’s Mazhab from Bilad al-Sham to Al-Andalus but it eventually discovered   that the new environment was not suitable for such Mazhab.  So, it replaced the Awza'i’s Mazhab by the Maliki’s one and then excluded all other Mazahib based on political, educational, and theological considerations. At the same time, the Abbasid State in Iraq adopted the Hanafi’s Mazhab and then it was extended to the Islamic West in Tunisia and the African land. Thus, the well-known Fiqh-mazahib  in the East reached Al-Andalus and the Islamic West. However, some theological, thoughtful, and political directions accompanied these mazahib had negative effects on them and eventually caused the extinction of them. The most importance of the theological manifests is the existence of Mu’tazilah Mazhab among the followers of Hanafi, Shafi, and al-Dhahiri’s Mazhab. Moreover, the Hanafi also mixed with the Shia in the time of the Aubidiyin State. However, most of the public and some of significant scholars were following the Maliki’s Mazhab. From the political side, the most important incident that led to extinction of the Fiqh Mazahib from the Islamic West was the use of excessive force by Al-mohad and Al-Aghalibah states against the Maliki’s scholars and the followers of that Mazhab which led to public supports of the Mazhab and its establishment. This research concerns with the political and theological effects of extinction of those Mazahib. It will be divided into two parts: the first one is about the extinct Fiqh Mazahib from the Islamic West and Al-Andalus and the second part is about the causes of such extinction.


 

Article Details

How to Cite
Ethmane, A. (2019). الأثر العقدي والسياسي في انقراض المذهب الفقهي بالغرب الإسلامي والأندلس. Malaysian Journal of Syariah and Law, 7(1), 109-123. https://doi.org/10.33102/mjsl.v7i1.157
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