Main Article Content
The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of freedom of expression from three perspectives of laws, namely, international human right law, Malaysian law as well as Islamic law, and its relation in protecting religion of Islam from religious insult. The study argues that there ought to be a legal protection equipped to religion in order to protect religion from being insulted and indirectly to maintain the peace and the public order in the world. The protection cannot be viewed as violation to the freedom of expression but it shall be viewed as one of restrictions to the freedom of expression because no right or freedom is absolute. The findings indicate that the protection to religion from religious insult has never been regarded as a necessary because it clashes with the freedom of expression. Lastly, the study concludes with recommendations on how to strike a balance between the freedom of expression and the right to have religion to be protected as well as a proposal to develop an international anti-blasphemy law protecting all religions and beliefs. By implementing these methods, religion of Islam can be protected from religious insult and peoples can no longer invoke their freedom of expression as an excuse.
Abdul Ghafur, H. (2011). Public International Law: A Practical Approach. Kuala Lumpur: Thomson Reuters.
Abd Malek bin Hussin v Borhan bin Hj Daud & Ors.  1 MLJ 368
Angelina, T. 28 May 2014. “Which countries still outlaw apostasy and blasphemy?” Pew Research Center. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/05/28/which-countries-still-outlaw-apostasy-and-blasphemy/
Bukhari.n.d.Fathul Bari. (Internet). Bab Hifdz Lisan. #6477.http://sunnah.com/riyadussaliheen/18)
Callamard, A. (2006). “Freedom of Speech and Offence: Why Blasphemy Laws Are Not the Appropriate Response”. Equal Voices.
Duhaime Legal Dictionary, 2014
Ekmeleddin, İ. 15 August 2012. “Freedom of Expression is Not a License to Incite Hatred and Intolerance”. The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
Faruqi, S.S. (1992). “Free Speech and the Constitution”. Kuala Lumpur: Current Law Journal. Vol. 4.
Foreign and Commonwealth Office. (2014). Hate Speech, Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Religion: A Dialogue. Year 2014.
Handyside v United Kingdom  ECHR 5
Holzaepfel, C. (2014). “How an International Blasphemy Law Pits the Freedom of Religion against the Freedom of Speech”. Emory International Law Review. TN: LexisNexis.
Khin, M.S. (1980). “Universal Declaration of Human Right: Is it Binding?’.University Law Journal. Yangon: University of Yangon Press.
Kiley, W. (2013). “A Global Blasphemy Law: Protecting Believers at the Expense of Free Speech”. Pepperdine Policy Review. California: Peppedine University. Vol. 6.
Laws of Malaysia Federal Constitution.
Laws of Malaysia Sedition Act [Act 15].
Laws of Malaysia Penal Code [Act 574].
Liz, G. 12 September 2012. “‘Innocence of Muslims’: The Film that May have Sparked U.S. Embassy Protests”. Yahoo News. http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/the-lookout/innocence-muslims-film-sparked-deadly-u-embassy-attacks-142118931.html
Lizzie, D. 23 February 2017. Danish man who videoed himself burning the Quran charged with blasphemy. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/denmark-man-burned-quran-koran-video-blasphemy-facebook-islam-prosecuted-charged-46-years-a7594796.html
n.a..7 January 2015. “As it Happened: Charlie Hebdo Attack”. BBC. http://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-europe-30710777
n.a. 4 May 2015. “Two Gunmen Shot Dead at Islamic Art Show in Dallas”. The Star. http://www.thestar.com.my/News/World/2015/05/04/Gunmen-killed-islam-art-expo/
n.a. 19 June 2014. “Freedom of Expression”. Duhaime. http://www.duhaime.org/LegalDictionary/F/FreedomofExpression.aspx
n.a. 26 January 2014. “Expression”. Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries. http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/expression
n.a. 10 March 2013. “Freedom”. The Law Dictionary. http://thelawdictionary.org/freedom/
n.a. 3 Disember 2012. “Deputy Minister: Malaysia Will Sign ICCPR Only If Beneficial to Nation”.The Star. http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2013/12/03/Malaysia-ICCPR-signatory/
n.a. 19 September 2012. “Press Conference by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon at United Nations Headquarters”. United Nations. http://www.un.org/press/en/2012/sgsm14518.doc.htm.
n.a. 6 February 2006. “Muslim Cartoon Fury Claims Lives”. BBC.News. http://news.bbc.co.uk.
Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries, 2014.
Saw, S. F. 21 April 2014. “Alvin Tan’s Ex-Girlfriend May Face Criminal Charges Alone, Says Lawyer”. The Malaymail Online. http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/alvin-tans-ex-girlfriend-may-face-criminal-charges-alone-says-lawyer
Shamrahayu, A.A. (2009). “Some Thoughts on the Relationship Between Law and Religion in Malaysia”. Kuala Lumpur: Current Law Journal. Vol. 1.
Tan,Y.L. 9 April 2015. “Najib: Sedition Act for protection of all Malaysians”. The Star. http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2015/04/09/Najib-Sedition-Act/
The Law Dictionary, 2013.
UfukGokcen. 10 February 2012. Advancing Freedoms of Expression and Religion in the Islamic World. Organization of Islamic Cooperation. http://www.oicun.org/71/20121128015637690.html