Main Article Content
This research analyses the existence of hijabophobia in relation to Muslim friendly hospitality services in Malaysia. By looking into the current practices of hospitality industry (specifically by looking into customer services of hotels) in Malaysia, this research investigates: (i) what is meant by hijabophobia? (ii) nature of hijabophobia under the purview of Malaysian laws; (iii) the impacts of hijabophobia in the employment and customer services; and (iv) the countermeasures to eliminate hijabophobia in the hospitality industry in Malaysia. This exploratory research utilises the doctrinal legal methods and the collected real experiences that are obtained through qualitative interviews. Based on the researchers’ preliminary investigation, there is existence of hijabophobia in the customer services of hotels and their employment in Malaysia. Such existence of hijabophobia is promoted through the hotels’ policies; and sometimes under unwritten but well acceptable standard of operations and practices. Unfortunately, since this research is carried out only based on preliminary findings, the researchers are unable to provide the frequency of occurrences for the hijabophobic practices in their customer services or employments. Here, the researchers suggest for an in-depth investigation on the policies and standard of operation or practices of each and every hotel in Malaysia. This is also necessary to evaluate the extent of Muslim friendly hospitality services are applied in these hotels.
Bleich, E. (2011). What is Islamophobia and how much is there? Theorizing and measuring an emerging comparative concept. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(12), 1581-1600.
Brems, E., Heri, C., Chaib, S. O., & Verdonck, L. (2017). Head-Covering Bans in Belgian Courtrooms and Beyond: Headscarf Persecution and the Complicity of Supranational Courts. Human Rights Quarterly, 39(4), 882-909.
Chong, Hazlin. (2017, November 2017). Hijab ban by hotels discriminatory. News Strait Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/letters/2017/11/302502/hijab-ban-hotels-discriminatory
Hamzeh, M. (2015). Jordanian national football Muslimat players: Interrupting Islamophobia in FIFA's hijab ban. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20(5), 517-531.
Kern, S. (2017, August 13). Europe: Burkini War Continues. Gate Stones Institute. Retrieved from https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/10822/europe-burkini-war
n. a. (2017, November 12). Get rid of discriminatory hijab ban for hotel workers, says civil society group. The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved from https://www.themalaysianinsight.com/s/22530/
n. a. (2017, November 13). Citing ‘Islamophobia’, PAS leader laments muted response to hotels’ headscarf ban. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/citing-islamophobia-pas-leader-laments-muted-response-to-hotels-headscarf-b
n. a. (2017, November 14). DAP MP says tudung ban ‘discriminatory’, offers legal help for court challenge. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/dap-mp-says-tudung-ban-discriminatory-offers-legal-help-for-court-challenge
n. a. (2017, November 14). Hijab ban for hotel staff insulting to Islam, says Perak Mufti. The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved from https://www.themalaysianinsight.com/s/22789/
n. a. (2017, November 16). Hijab ban against women rights, says Rohani. The Malaysian Insight. Retrieved from https://www.themalaysianinsight.com/s/23140/
n. a. (2017, November 17). Indonesia Second Favorite Destination for Muslim Millennial Travelers: Mastercard Report. Jakarta Globe. Retrieved from http://jakartaglobe.id/business/indonesia-second-favorite-destination-muslim-millennial-travelers-mastercard-report/
n. a. (2018, January 13). Headscarf ban on hotel workers: Employment act to be amended to prevent discrimination. Malay Mail Online. Retrieved from http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/headscarf-ban-on-hotel-workers-employment-act-to-be-amended-to-prevent-disc
n. a. (n. d.). Discover Malaysia: Your Muslim-friendly Destination. Islamic Tourism Centre. Retrieved from http://www.itc.gov.my/tourists/welcome-to-malaysia-the-land-of-truly-asia/
Nasa, Aina. (2017, November 13). MAH statement on headscarves ban discriminatory, irresponsible: MIC. News Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/politics/2017/11/302806/mah-statement-headscarves-ban-discriminatory-irresponsible-mic
Robinson, R. S. (2016). Hijab in the American workplace: visibility and discrimination. Culture and Religion, 17(3), 332-351.
Sayyid, S., & Vakil, A. (Eds.). (2010). Thinking through Islamophobia: global perspectives. Cinco Puntos Press.
Sheridan, L. P. (2006). Islamophobia pre–and post–September 11th, 2001. Journal of interpersonal violence, 21(3), 317-336.
Shriver, C. M. (2017). What is Unveiled Through Veiling: Understanding the Complex Narratives of the Modern Hijabista Movement.
Sivanandam, H. (2017, November 20). Teach hotels a lesson, says Bung on tudung ban. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/11/20/teach-hotels-a-lesson-says-bung-on-tudung-ban/
Tourism Malaysia. (2017). Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.tourism.gov.my/statistics
Zine, J. (1999). Muslim students in public schools, education and the politics of religious identity (Doctoral dissertation, National Library of Canada= Bibliothèque nationale du Canada).