• Mustapha Ismail Adua Department of Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria
  • Nik Salida Suhaila Nik Saleh Faculty of Syariah and Law, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Nilai, 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia



Aut dedere, civil aviation crimes, international law, suppression, Islamic Law


Aut dedere (extradition) is an erga omnes obligation towards the international community aimed at closing the gate of safe haven so that the international criminal will face the consequence of his heinous act directed at the international community from the requesting state. The term aut dedere has not been used in conventions or treaties until the eighteenth century. This paper examines the necessity of integrating the doctrine of 'aut dedere' (extradition) into International Aviation Conventions to combat civil aviation offenses and seeks to explore its treatment under Islamic law, and the potential for punishment for refusal to extradite offenders. Through doctrinal legal research, the paper reveals that while aut dedere is obligatory under conventional law, it lacks enforceability without associated punishments. Conversely, extradition under Islamic law is deemed mandatory due to its universal nature. The paper underscores the relevance of Islamic jurisprudence in modern international legal frameworks and recommends amendments to International Civil Aviation Organization conventions to enforce extradition provisions and recognize civil aviation crimes as international offences, consistent with Islamic legal principles.


Download data is not yet available.


Ab Halim, A. (2018). The truce of al-hudabiyyah refers by the Qur’an as an ‘open victory’: An analysis. Online Journal of Islamic Studies, 5(3), 31-36.

ʻAbd al-Qādir ʻAwdah. (1985). Al-tashrīʻ al-jinā’ī al-Islāmī: muqāranā bi-al-qānūn al-waḍʻī, 4th ed. Cairo: Dār Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī.

Abou-El-wafa, A. (2009). The right to asylum between Islamic Shariah and international refugee law: A comparative study. Riyadh Printing Press.

AdilSalahi, M. (2002). Man and the Prophet cited in Asyiqin Ab Halim. (2018). The truce of Al-Hudabiyyah refers by the Qur’an as an ‘open victory’. An Analysis, Online Journal of Islamic Studies, 5(3), 32.

Adua, I. M. (2014). International law on aircraft hijacking: The practice in Malaysia and Nigeria [Doctoral dissertation, International Islamic University Malaysia]. Malaysian Theses Online.

Adua, I. M., & Adam, K.I. (2014). An overview of the international and Nigerian legal framework for the prevention of aircraft sabotage. Centre Point Journal, 17(2), 1-6.

Ahmed Taro, S., & Muhmmaed. (2023). Criminal protection of aircraft. International Journal of Law and Politics Studies, 154-155. DOI:

Al-Dawoody, A. (2011). The Islamic law of war: justifications and regulations. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI:

Al-Dawoody, A. (2015). International terrorism and the jurisdiction of Islamic law. International Criminal Law Review, 15, 565-586. DOI:

Armstrong, K. (2002). Islam: A short history. Modern Library.

Armstrong, K. (2007). Muhammad: A Prophet for our time. Harper Collins.

Bala, C., & Rajpurohit, R. (2021). Study the political offense in the extradition. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, 6(1), 6-8.

Bassiouni, C. (1974). Extradition and world public order. A.W Sijthof Publisher.

Bassiouni, C. (1987). International extradition: U.S. law & practice. Oceana Publisher.

Bassiouni, C. (1987). The political offense exception revisited: Extradition between the U.S. and the United Kingdom- A choice between friendly cooperation among allies and sound law and policy. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy, 15(2), 255-282.

Bianchi, A. A. (2004). Enforcing international law norms against terrorism. Hart Publishing.

Blakesley, C. L. (1980). Extradition between France and the United States: An exercise in comparative and international law. Vand. J. Transnat’l L, 13, 173-185.

Blakesley, C. L. (1981). The practice of extradition from antiquity to modern France and the United States: A brief history. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 4(1), 39-60.

Blakesley, C. L. (1992). Terrorism, drugs, international law, and the protection of human liberty: A comparative study of international law, its nature, role, and impact in matters of terrorism, drug trafficking, war, and extradition. Transnational Publishers.

Blumenau, B., & Muller, J. A. (2023). International organizations and terrorism: Multilateral antiterrorism efforts, 1960-1990. Terrorism and Political Violence, 35(2), 433-434. DOI:

Bodin, J. (1576). Lex Six Livres de la Republique. Impreso en Espana por Rogar.

Borelli, S. (2004). Redention of terrorist suspects to United States: Human rights and the limits of international cooperation, in Andrea Reisman (ed), Enforcing International Law Norms Against Terrorism. Hart Publishing.

Boz, B. (2022). From the past to the future of extradition: The rise of a new obligation as reverse extradition. ASBÜ Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(2), 494-539. DOI:

CIL. (2010, September 10). “Beijing Convention 2010 on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation”. Centre for International Law.

Colangelo A. J. (2006). The legal limits of universal jurisdiction. Va. J. Int'l L, 47(1), 149-191.

Elias, B. (2010). Airport and aviation security: US policy and strategy in the age of global terrorism. USA: Auerbach Publications, Taylor & Francis Group. DOI:

Garner, B. A. (2004). Black’s Law Dictionary, Eight editions. Thomson West.

George Udeozor v. Federal Republic of Nigeria, CA/L/376/05.

Grotius, H. (1646). De jure belli ac pacis libri tres. The Lawbook Exchange, LTD.

Hamid, A. G. (2001). Public international law: A practical approach, 3rd ed. Sweet and Maxwell Asia.

Ibn Rushd, A. L. (1408 A.H). al-Muqaddimat al-mumahhidat, verified b Muhammed Hajj et al. Dar at Turath al-Islami House.

ICOA. (n.d.). “Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation”: The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Imam ibn Moflih al-Hanbali. (1391 A.H/1971 AD). Al-adaab asha-Sharíyyah wal-minnah al-maráfiyyah (vol. 1). Riyadh Modern Bookshop.

Jefferey, M. A., & Jefferey, S. F. (2009). Practical aviation security: Predicting and preventing future threats. Elsevier Inc.

Jennings, R., & A. Watts, A.. (1992). Oppenheim‟s international law. London: Peace Longman.

Kelly, M. J. (2023). Cheating justice by cheating death: The doctrine of collision for prosecuting foreign terrorists- Passage of aut-dedere aut-judicare into customary law & refusal to extradite based on the death penalty. Arizona Journal of International Law, 20(3), 491-532.

Kutner. (1964). World habeas corpus and international extradition. University of Detroit Law Journal, 41, 525-586.

Ladapo, O. A., & Okebukola, E. O. (2016). Cases and materials on extradition in Nigeria, United Nations office on drugs and crime. United Nations Website.

Macedo, S.(2004).Universal jurisdiction: national courts and the prosecution of serious crimes under international law. University Pennsylvania Press.

Malanczuk, P. (2000). Netherlands yearbook of international law. Volume XXX. 1999. (Yearbook International Law XXX ed.) T.M.C. Asser Institute: Yearbook International Law.

Merle, R., & Vitus, A. (1984). Traite de droit criminal: problems generaux de la science criminelle. Cujas Publisher.

Muḥammad Abū Zahrah. (1985). Al-jarīmah wa al-ʻuqūbah fī al-fiqh al-Islāmī: al-Jarīmah. Dār al-Fikr al-ʻArabī.

Nussbaum, A. (1974). A concise history of the law of nations. Macmillan Company.

Official Journal of the European Communities. (2000, December 18). “Charter & fundamental rights of the European Union”: Official Journal of the European Communities.

O'Keefe, R. (2004). Universal jurisdiction: Clarifying the basic concept. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2(3), 735–760. DOI:

Petersen, A. C. (1992). Extradition and the political offense exception in the suppression of terrorism. Indiana Law Journal, 67(3), 767-796.

Re Castioni (1891) 1 Q.B 149 DOI:

Re Kaphengst, 5 Ann. Dig 285 (Tribunal Federal Suiss (1930)).

Re Ockert, 7 I.L.R 369 (Tribunal Federal, Suisse (1951).

Re Vogt, 2 Ann. Dig 285 (Tribunal Federal Suiss (1924)). DOI:

Reydams. (2004). “Universal jurisdiction: International and municipal legal perspectives”. Oxford Academic. DOI:

Roberto, L.P. (2009). Extradition: A test of international cooperation in the enforcement of domestic criminal law [Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University]. Florida State University,

Schubas, W. A. (2001). ―Extradition-death penalty_ US-Canada extradition, treaty-death penalty under international law. The American Journal of International Law, 93(3), 667-669.

Soering vs. U.K, 161 EUR. Ct. H.R (ser. A) (1989) 106.

Stephen, H. (2006). International law, (2nd ed.). New York: Butterworths Tutorial Series, LexisNexis Butterworth.

Sternberg, K. S., & Skelding, D. L. (1983). State Department determinations of political offenses: Death

Knell for the political offense exception in extradition law. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 15(1), 138-172.

Taulbee, J. L., & Glahn, G.V. (1996). Law Among nations: An introduction to public international law. Newgen Publishing UK.

Thaddeus Chukwuka Eze. (2021). Exploring the politics and law of extradition in international relations.

Nnamdi Azikwe Journal of International and Jurisprudence, 21(2), 34-56.

United States of America v. Mehmed Bilic (2022) Case No.2:18mj-478-CMR.

United States v. Burn (2001)1 S.C.R. 283.

Van den Wyngaert, C. (1990). Applying the European Convention on Human Rights to extradition: DOI:

Opening Pandora’s Box?. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 39(4), 757–779.

Van Den, W. (1985). The Political offense exception to extradition: Defining issues and searching a feasible alternative. Rev. Belge De Droit Int’l, 1, 741-754.

Zakari, A. (1313 A.H). Asna al-matalib: sharh raudh at-talib. al -Maymainiyyah.

Zavare, M. S., & Salimi, S. (2023), Applying the principle of universal jurisdiction to crimes against cyber security in international aviation. Journal of Legal Research, 21(52), 65-89.

Zeynap, E. (2021). Terrorism and the political offence exception to extradition-the case of Turkey, Ankara Uni.Hukuk Fak. Dergisi,70(1), 75-105. DOI:



How to Cite